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Warr et al (2010) applied ‘useful exergy’ methodology to the study of long-run energy transitions in four developed economies: Japan, Austria, US and UK.

They find firstly that aggregated primary energy to ‘useful exergy’ efficiencies increased significantly in the last century, but stabilized after the first oil crisis.

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Economic measures of efficiency, such as primary energy per value added (energy intensity) are normally used as a proxy of efficiency, but this has been criticized by some for not capturing adequately how productively energy is used within the economy. Ayres and Warr 2009) have turned to the concept of ‘useful exergy’, which addresses this shortcoming by focusing on what energy is used for, i.e. the heat actually provided to a room, or light, or motion) rather than where it comes from, i.e.

energy carriers, enabling accounting for the efficiency of different energy uses.

Secondly, they demonstrate that while long-run primary energy intensities exhibited a secular decline, ‘useful exergy’ intensities increased in all economies until the oil crisis, and declined thereafter.

These findings together imply either that structural changes have occurred in the economy after 1970s, or that the role of energy in terms of boosting economic growth has changed.

Det gör vi genom två sammankopplade undersökningar; en om regenternas resemönster och en utifrån lokalt nätverksbyggande bland härskande skikt (1356-1360, 1434-1436 & 1470-1520), där även ofrälse aktörer och kvinnor återfinns.

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