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Around 40,000 years ago, the species' expansion out of Africa launched the colonization of the planet by modern human beings.

By 10,000 BC, Homo sapiens had spread to most corners of Afro-Eurasia.

Some notable pre-colonial states and societies in Africa include the Ajuran Empire, D'mt, Adal Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate, Kingdom of Nri, Nok culture, Mali Empire, Songhai Empire, Benin Empire, Ashanti Empire, Ghana Empire, Mossi Kingdoms, Mutapa Empire, Kingdom of Mapungubwe, Kingdom of Sine, Kingdom of Sennar, Kingdom of Saloum, Kingdom of Baol, Kingdom of Cayor, Kingdom of Zimbabwe, Kingdom of Kongo, Empire of Kaabu, Ancient Carthage, Numidia, Mauretania, and the Aksumite Empire.

From the mid-7th century, the Arab slave trade saw Muslim Arabs enslave Africans following an armistice between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Kingdom of Makuria after the Second Battle of Dongola in 652 AD.

They were transported, along with Asians and Europeans, across the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert.

From the late 15th century, Europeans joined the slave trade, with the Portuguese initially acquiring slaves through trade and later by force as part of the Atlantic slave trade.

They transported enslaved West, Central, and Southern Africans overseas.

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