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The given original most recent and best editions have generally been used, though in the case of some of the writers I have only been patristic able to consult old editions. by screening the luminous The ideas of Empedokles about the sun hemisphere. Empedokles was aware that solar are caused the eclipses by moon passing before the sun The moon he supposed to be 4 . Timoeus first describes how the Deity or the ” framing ” artificer made the world and how he gave it most perfect the figure, that of a sphere.

PAGE Babylonian, Jewish and Egyptian cosmology Homer and Hesiodus 1 Sources of our knowledge Thales Anaximander Anaximenes Xenophanes Parmenides Herakleitus Empedokles Leu- kippus and Demokritus Metrodorus Anaxagoras of Diogenes Apollonia Archelaus 9 Pythagoras Spherical figure of the earth Philolaus and his system of the world Later Pythagoreans, Hiketas and Ekphantus. 168), as it is = 30×360 or one generation for every day of the year, 30 years being the length of a generation according to Herakleitus. are are described by Aetius as if there were two peculiar ; they suns, one in one hemisphere and the other merely its reflection ” from the rounded earth and carried with the motion of along ” the and he adds the sun fiery atmosphere,” : Briefly speaking, is a reflection of the fire the earth,” and in the surrounding next ” The sun which faces the reflection paragraph : opposite is of the same size as the earth 6.” But the doxographic writer has misunderstood the meaning of Empedokles, as certainly we read in the Stromata of the Pseudo-Plutarch ” The sun is : not of a nature, but a reflection of fire, like that which is fiery in water.” This is enough and agrees produced intelligible with the statement that the course of the sun is the limit of the world 7.” The sun is therefore simply an image of the fiery Aet. twice as far from the sun as from the earth 5, or, as the sun was a reflection from the celestial the distance of the only sphere, moon was one-third of the radius of the The sphere. He gave it only one motion, the one peculiar to its form, letting it turn uniformly on its axis without any progressive motion The soul of the world was 1 by the Artificer in the middle, extending throughout placed the whole and over its surface, being both in age and spreading 1 Timceus, p.

Astronomy may be said to have sprung from Babylon, but cosmology, distinct from mytho- logical cosmogony, only The cosmology of the Babylonians was a compound of the ideas which originally prevailed in the territories around the two ancient sanctuaries, Eridu on the shore of the Persian Gulf and Nippur in northern Babylonia. C.) were as as those of Herakleitus, and combined Ionian quaint with and Eleatic doctrines. Moon 1 Sun 2 Venus 3 Mercury 4 Mars 8 Jupiter 9 Saturn 27 By interpolating numbers these to other between according certain rules he forms an arithmetical musical scale of four octaves and a major sixth 1 But while Plato thus views the . motion of the exterior circles he named that of sameness, and that of the interior the motion of the diverse.

According to the of Eridu water was the of all things; the cosmology origin inhabited world has sprung from the deep and is still encircled by Khubur, the ocean stream, beyond which the sun-god pastures his cattle. He assumed that Pythagorean are four primary elements fire, air, water, and earth there imperishable and unchangeable in quality ; and the first he was four as such, predecessors had only to fix on these while his assumed one or two elements 7 To the combinations . “” soul of the world as a harmony of the essences, he does not seem to share in the Pythagorean belief in musical sounds produced by the motion of the He now lets Timaeus planets. He caused the circle of the same to revolve the side of a along parallelo- gram towards the and that of the diverse along the right, diagonal towards the left.

belittle the knowledge of the Ancients, making out that Plato imagined the earth to be a cube and that the spheres of Eudoxus and the Ptolemaic and Tychonic systems are impossible and absurd. together mixed with fire, it is flat like a disc and illuminated by the sun Empedokles assumed the existence of two separate 3 . 363) says that Empedokles remarked 1 that the height of the heavens was less than its breadth, the universe having the shape of an egg. Nor does he to have mentioned appear the annual motion of the sun with to the but regard stars, only its motion north and south. Sokrates first shortly reviews the results of the conversation on the political previous and Kritias tells a old myth about the vanished day, charming island of Atlantis, in order to show that this ideal state of had once upon a time existed among the society really Athenians.

In order to enable the reader to check every statement made and to form his own opinion every on debatable I point, have full references to the authorities. celestial 4 one of fire and another of air with hemispheres , only a little or a and a side and as the was fire, day night ; sphere made to rotate by the push of the fire, the two halves are in turn above the earth and cause and “the earth makes day night, night by coming in front of the lights 5,” i.e. The motion of the sun he daily believed to have been so slow at the time when the human race from the earth, that the day was as as ten sprang long months are now afterwards it became reduced to the ; length of seven months, and this is the reason why ten-month and seven-month children can live 3. Before proceeding further in the attempt to trans- plant the ideal citizens of the Republic into real life, the parties to let Timseus, who has an intimate knowledge present agree of science, give them a lecture on the origin and construction of the universe and the formation of man.

2 In early (Sumeriau) texts there are twin mountains between which the sun passes. Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, Strassburg, 1890, pp. 27), and ” it is He that sitteth upon ” the circle of the earth (Is. 22) ; but the earth supposed is to rest on or “foundations,” often referred in “pillars” to, eg. 7, that ” He stretcheth out the north over empty and hangeth the earth upon space nothing.” ” Under the surface of the earth is the from which great deep,” fountains and rivers and which an spring, plays important part in the account of the deluge. caused by the rapidity of its motion, but the stars do not give out any heat owing to their great distance. Xenophanes was more of a than of a perhaps poet philo- and the real founder of the Eleatic school was Parmenides sopher, of Elea, who lived in the of the fifth He is early part century. 21) to have attached himself to the but he was in his influenced by Pythagoreans, philosophy Xenophanes. earth into five zones, of which he made the central, torrid and uninhabited one, nearly twice as broad it was afterwards as reckoned to be, extending beyond the circles of the into tropics the zones 3 We cannot doubt that the true temperate . layers, extreme Olympos,” is a solid vault, chained by Necessity to serve as a limit to the courses of the stars 3. superiority given to the motion towards the that is to the right ; say, daily rotation of the heavens includes also the seven planets which are carried in at the same time along it, although they pursue With regard to this distinction between “left” and “right,” it looks at 1 first sight as if Plato were not consistent in his use of these expressions. seems to the Tins me a very simple explanation of the apparent inconsistency of Plato, which has troubled so many commentators. Svvafiiu), owing to which (rrfv avr The expression ” a force opposed ” to the sun, in the last sentence, is rather obscure and has rise to a of given variety from Theon of Smyrna and Proklus down to interpretations Martin.