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This equates to 70% of women and 58% of men living with HIV receiving ART.
33 As Zambia’s total population stood at 16.2 million in 201534, this indicates a testing rate of around 15%.
Researchers investigating this increase in HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) found that infants exposed to ART medication used before birth in PMTCT programmes showed a higher prevalence and strength of resistance compared to those with no exposure.
On the other hand, 20% of infants not exposed to any form of PMTCT treatment were also drug resistant which could suggest that there is a new strain of virus that is circulating Zambia more generally.32 At the end of 2016, over 64% of people in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART) were receiving it.
However, Zambia’s Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) 2013-14 found 46% of female respondents and 37% of male respondents (aged 15-49) reported having an HIV test in the past 12 months and knowing their results.35 In 2016, PEPFAR reported that 42% of young people (aged 15-24) were aware of their HIV status.36 A study in 2012 found a combination of reasons explaining why people were not testing, including a fear of stigma, rejection by their sexual partner, a fear of antiretroviral treatment, and a belief that traditional medicine would keep them healthy if they became ill.